• https://cleantogreen751389608.wordpress.com/2021/01/18/electronic-waste-disposal-4/
    https://cleantogreen751389608.wordpress.com/2021/01/18/electronic-waste-disposal-4/

    Electronic waste Disposal, commonly referred to as e-scrap or e-waste, is the trash we generate from surplus, broken, and obsolete electronic devices. Electronics contains various toxic and unsafe chemicals and materials released into the environment if we don’t eliminate them properly. E-waste or electronics recycling is the process of recovering material from old devices to use in new products.

    Frequently Replaced Electronics

    With such a concise, useful life, electronics transition into e-waste at a rapid pace. On the brink of 500 million unused cell phones, it was estimated that people’s homes are accumulating. Globally, a telephone is sold to around 25% of the population annually. Millions of electronic devices like mobile phones, TVs, computers, laptops, and tablets reach the top of their useful life per annum.

    What Happens to Devices at the top of Their Useful Life

    Unfortunately, most of these electronic products end up in landfills, and just 20% of Electronic waste Disposal. According to a UN study, about 50 million tons of e-waste was discarded worldwide. 1 Electronics are filled with valuable materials, including copper, tin, iron, aluminium, fossil fuels, titanium, gold, and silver. Many of the materials utilized in making these electronic devices are often recovered, reused, and recycled—including plastics, metals, and glass.

    Benefits of Electronic Waste Disposal

    Recycling e-waste enables us to recover various valuable metals and other materials from electronics, saving natural resources (energy), reducing pollution, conserving landfill space, and creating jobs. According to the EPA, recycling a million laptops can save the energy equivalent of electricity which will run 3,657 U.S.

    Households for a year. Recycling a million cell phones also can recover 75 pounds of gold, 772 pounds of silver, 35,274 pounds of copper, and 33 pounds of palladium.3

    On the opposite end, e-waste recycling helps hamper on production waste. According to the Electronics TakeBack Coalition, it takes 1.5 plenty of water, 530 pounds of fuel, and 40 pounds of chemicals to manufacture one computer and monitor. 81% of the energy associated with a computer is used during production and not during operation.4

    The Electronic Waste Disposal Process

    Electronic Waste Disposal is often challenging because discarded electronics devices are sophisticated devices manufactured from varying proportions of glass, metals, and plastics. The recycling process can vary, depending on the materials being recycled and the technologies employed, but here is a general overview.

    Collection and Transportation: Collection and transportation are two of the initial stages of the recycling process, including e-waste. Recyclers place collection bins or electronics take-back booths in specific locations and transport the collected e-waste from these sites to recycling plants and facilities.

    Shredding, Sorting, and Separation: After collection and transportation to recycling facilities, materials within the e-waste stream must be processed and separated into clean commodities wont to make new products. Efficient separation of materials is that the foundation of electronics recycling. Shredding the e-waste facilitates the sorting and separation of plastics from metals and internal circuitry. The waste items are sliced into pieces as small as 100mm to prepare for further sorting.

    A powerful overhead magnet separates iron and steel from the conveyor’s waste stream and then prepares it as recycled steel. Further mechanical processing separates aluminium, copper, AND circuit boards from the fabric stream, which is mostly plastic. Water separation technology is then wont to separate glass from plastics. The separation process’s final step locates and extracts any remaining metal remnants from the plastics to purify the stream further.

    Preparation purchasable as Recycled Materials: After the shredding, sorting and separation stages are executed, the separated materials are prepared purchasable as usable raw materials to supply new electronics or other products.

    Electronic Waste Disposal Associations

    ISRI (Institute of Recycling Industries): ISRI is the largest recycling industry association with 1600 member companies, of which 350 companies are Electronic Waste Disposal.

    CAER (Coalition for American Electronics Recycling): CAER is another leading e-waste recycling industry association within the U.S. with over 130 member companies operating around 300 Electronic Waste Disposal facilities altogether throughout the country.

    EERA (European Electronics Recyclers Association): EERA is the leading Electronic Waste Disposal industry association in Europe.

    EPRA (Electronic Products Recycling Association): EPRA is the leading Electronic Waste Disposal industry association in Canada.

    Current Challenges for Electronic Waste Disposal Industry

    The Electronic Waste Disposal industry has a significant number of challenges, which is exporting to developing nations. Exporting e-waste, including hazardous and toxic materials, leads to serious health hazards for workers dismantling electronic devices in countries without adequate environmental controls. Currently, 50%–80% of e-waste that recyclers collect is exported overseas, including illegally exported e-scrap, which is of particular concern. Overall, the inadequate management of electronics recycling in developing countries has led to varied health and environmental problems.

    Although the quantity of e-waste is increasing rapidly, the standard of e-waste is decreasing. Devices are becoming smaller and smaller, containing less valuable. The material values of the many end-of-life electronic and electrical devices have therefore fallen sharply. Electronic Waste Disposal has suffered thanks to sagging global prices of recycled commodities, which have decreased margins and resulted in business closures.

    Another problem is that as time goes on, many products are being made to make them not easily recyclable, repairable, or reusable. Such design is usually undertaken for proprietary reasons, to the detriment of overall environmental goals.

    Organizations like ISRI are active in promoting policies to broaden the range of authorized companies allowed to repair and refurbish smartphones to avoid needless destruction. The current rate or level of e-waste recycling isn’t sufficient. The current recycling rate of 20% has much room for improvement, as most Electronic Waste Disposal still is relegated to the landfill.

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  • https://cleantogreen751389608.wordpress.com/2021/01/11/electronic-waste-disposal-3/
    https://cleantogreen751389608.wordpress.com/2021/01/11/electronic-waste-disposal-3/

    Since India is very deficient in precious natural resource while untreated e-waste goes to landfill, there’s a requirement for a neat, regulated e-waste recovery regime that might generate jobs and wealth.

    Electronic waste (e-waste) typically includes discarded computer monitors, motherboards, mobile phones and chargers, compact discs, headphones, television sets, air conditioners and refrigerators. According to the worldwide E-Waste Monitor 2017, India generates about 2 million tonnes (MT) of e-waste annually. It ranks fifth among e-waste producing countries, after the US, China, Japan and Germany. In 2016-17, India treated only 0.036 MT of its e-waste.

    About 95 per cent of India’s Electronic waste disposal is recycled in the informal sector and a crude manner. A report on e-waste presented by the United Nations (UN) within the World Economic Forum on January 24, 2019, points out that the waste stream reached 48.5 MT in 2018. The figure is predicted to double if nothing changes.

    Only 20 per cent of worldwide e-waste is recycled. The UN report indicates that thanks to low extraction techniques, the total recovery rate of cobalt (the metal which is in great demand for laptop, smartphone and electric batteries) from e-waste is only 30 per cent.

    The report cites that one recycler in China already produces more cobalt (by recycling) than what the country mines in one year. Recycled metals also are 2 to 10 times more energy-efficient than metals smelted from virgin ore.

    The report suggests that lowering the number of electronics entering the waste stream and improving end-of-life handling are essential for building a more circular economy, where waste is reduced, resources are conserved and fed back to the availability chain for brand spanking new products.

    On a positive note, media reports highlighted that the 2020 Tokyo Olympics medals would be made from 50,000 tonnes of e-waste. The organising committee will make all the medals from old smartphones, laptops and other gadgets. By November 2018, organisers had collected 47,488 tonnes of devices, from which nearly 8 tonnes of gold, silver and bronze are going to be extracted to form 5,000 medals. About 1,600 or 90 per cent municipal authorities in Japan were involved in collection activities.

    Laws to manage e-waste are in situ in India since 2011, mandating that only authorised dismantlers and recyclers collect e-waste. E-waste (Management) Rules, 2016 was enacted on October 1, 2017. Over 21 products (Schedule-I) were included under the purview of the rule.

    The rule also extended its purview to components or consumables or parts or spares of Electrical and equipment (EEE), alongside their products. The government has strengthened the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), the worldwide best practice to ensure the end-of-life products’ take-back.

    A new arrangement called Producer Responsibility Organisation (PRO) has been introduced to strengthen EPR further. The producers need to meet targets, which should be 20 per cent of the waste generated by their sales. This will increase by 10 per cent annually for the subsequent five years. The law also says that producers’ responsibility isn’t confined to waste collection which the waste reaches the authorised recycler/dismantler.

    And despite new rules that have to inherit place to securely process this hazardous material, on the brink of 80 per cent of e-waste — old laptops and cell phones, cameras and air conditioners, televisions and LED lamps — continues to be broken down, massive health and environmental cost polluting groundwater and soil, by the informal sector.

    Electronic Waste Disposal is growing at a compound annual rate of growth (CAGR) of about 30 per cent within the country. ASSOCHAM, one among India’s apex trade associations estimated that e-waste generation was 1.8 MT once a year in 2016 and would reach 5.2 MT once a year by 2020.

    India now has 178 registered e-waste recyclers, accredited by the state governments to process e-waste. But many of India’s e-waste recyclers aren’t recycling the waste in the least. While some are storing it in hazardous conditions, others can’t even handle such waste, as per the Union Environment ministry report.

    Initiatives on building awareness in e-waste management

    The Ministry of Electronics and knowledge Technology (MeitY) has initiated an e-waste awareness programme under Digital India, along with side industry associations from 2015, to make awareness among the general public about the hazards of e-waste recycling by the unorganised sector, and to teach them about alternate methods of removing their e-waste.

    The programme stresses the necessity of adopting environment-friendly, electronic waste disposal practices. The programme has adopted the most straightforward practices for e-waste recycling available globally so that this sector could generate jobs and viable business prospects for locals.

    Development of waste recycling technologies

    The MeitY has developed affordable technologies to recycle valuable materials and plastics in an environmentally sound manner, including two exclusive PCB recycling technologies, viz 1000 kg/ day capacity (~35 MT e-waste) and 100kg/batch (~3.5MT e-waste) processes, with acceptable environmental norms.

    The 1000kg PCB/day continuous process plant would be suitable for creating an eco-park within the country, whereas, the 100kg PCB/batch process plant would be suitable for the informal sector. This could be done by upgrading and reworking this state of affairs of informal sectors.

    Electronic waste disposal also contains plastic, up to just about 25 per cent of its weight. Novel recovery and conversion of e-waste plastics to value-added products have also been successfully developed.

    The developed process can convert a majority (76 per cent) of the waste plastics into suitable materials, which could be used for virgin plastic products. The technology has already been transferred for commercialisation. Professor Veena Sahajwalla, an expert in Australia, suggests fixing micro-factories in India to rework e-waste into reusable material to be converted into ceramics and plastic filaments 3D printing.

    The high-grade metals — like gold, silver, copper and palladium — within the e-waste are often separated for re-sale in totally safe conditions. She opines that there’s no reason to burn plastic, micro-factories can create filament with plastic by compressing the waste during a temperature-controlled area.

    A modular micro-factory, which might require a 50 sq mt area, are often located wherever waste is stockpiled. She says that if funds are made available towards operators’ initial capital expenditure, it will help empower the people working with waste.

    The immense potential is there in augmenting e-waste recycling in the country. There are some forward movements in this direction. However, lots of ground has to be covered through an awareness campaign, skill development, building human capital, and introducing technology while adopting adequate safety measures in its informal sector.

    Since India is very deficient in precious natural resource (whereas untreated e-waste goes to landfill), there’s a requirement for a neat, robust and controlled e-waste recovery regime that would generate jobs and wealth.

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  • https://cleantogreen751389608.wordpress.com/2020/12/30/electronic-waste-disposal-2/
    https://cleantogreen751389608.wordpress.com/2020/12/30/electronic-waste-disposal-2/

    Over the last decade, quality of life and owning electronics became inextricably linked. As a result, the assembly and sale of electronic goods have skyrocketed worldwide. Due to rapid technological advances, there is a much more comprehensive range of products available, and new versions of existing goods are being launched regularly. Therefore, the rate at which electronics are being discarded (and the sheer volume of waste) has increased drastically. This electronic waste, or e-waste, is being exported to developing countries where crude ‘recycling’ techniques expose both the workers and the environment to dangerous chemicals.

    So, How Much Electronic Waste Disposal is out There?

    In us, 3 million plenty of e-waste (computers, printers, phones, cameras, televisions, refrigerators, etc.) is produced per annum. Globally, e-waste generation is growing by 40 million tons per annum (1). This is like filling around 15,000 football fields six feet deep with waste! As unimaginable massive as this figure already is, it is increasing at an alarming rate.

    In 2020, it is estimated that in China (currently the most considerable dumping ground), e-waste from computers will have jumped by 200-400% and mobile phones will increase by 700%. In India, computer waste is predicted to rise by 500%, and e-waste from mobile phones will be an astounding 18 times above current levels (yes, that’s an 1800% jump) (1). While some state-of-the-art electronic recycling facilities exist, most of this e-waste is being shipped (legally and illegally) to developing countries.

    E-Waste in Developing Countries

    Due to increased safety rules in Western countries, it’s 10 times cheaper to export e-waste to developing countries than to recycle (3) locally. Though some e-waste exportation is legal, an outsized portion is against the law. Electronics shipped under the category of ‘used’ or ‘second-hand’ goods are not subject to any restrictions, and numerous other loopholes, export schemes, and corrupt officials have been discovered (4). In 2005, inspections of 18 European seaports found that approximately 47% of exported waste was illegal, which 23,000 metric plenty of e-waste were illegally shipped from the United Kingdom (5).

    Common e-waste destinations include China, India, Pakistan, the Philippines, Nigeria, Ghana, and Brazil, to name a few. China is far from the foremost famous dumping ground and receives an estimated 70% of the 20-50 million tons to global e-waste produced yearly (3). The e-waste industry employs 150,000 people in Guiyu, China, while the scrap yards in Delhi boast 25,000 workers and 20,000 plenty of yearly waste (5). These countries create a ‘perfect storm’ for e-waste dumping: cheap and desperate labour with no added cost for health or safety regulations.

    Human Health and Environmental Issues

    An undeniable fact that e-waste is “backyard” recycling operations poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. Valuable metals like gold and copper are often extracted from electronics, but this recovery process is usually wiped out the most cost-effective and most unsafe way.

    Plastics, which contain heavy metals and flame retardants, are burned in open piles and release deadly dioxin and furans. Cathode ray tubes (CRTs) are broken with hammers to get rid of copper, a process that also removes toxic phosphor dust. Circuit boards are cooked over open flames or in shallow pans, exposing workers to steer fumes. Acid baths are wont to extract gold from circuit card chips, spewing even more toxic gases into the air (6). These processes release various heavy metals, including lead, cadmium, and mercury into the air, soil, and water (5).

    Despite the toxic nature of the most common ‘recycling’ techniques, over 90% of e-waste landfills or dumps have no environmental standards (3). Unbelievably, Nigeria does not have a single legally licensed landfill despite having 115 million and being a famous e-waste dumping ground (2). The environmental impacts of unregulated ‘recycling’ sites are evident in polluted groundwater, extremely unsafe lead and mercury in nearby rivers, and toxic emissions that contribute to global warming.

    Workers at e-waste sites are usually migrants from impoverished areas and are often children. They have little to no access to gloves or face masks and are often too desperate for work or uninformed to care about health risks. Workers at e-waste sites are prone to skin rashes, cancer, weakening of the immune system, respiratory, nerve, kidney, and brain damage (3). In China’s Guiyu region, workers have incredibly high levels of toxic fire retardants in their bodies, and over 80% of the children already have lead poisoning.

    What Can You do to Prevent E-Waste Dumping?

    As with any illegal trade, it might be virtually impossible to prevent all e-waste exportation and “backyard” recycling operations. However, you can take measures to ensure that your e-waste is being correctly disposed of. Large consumer electronic stores like Best Buy and Staples have in-store recycling programs. You can also find specific information on nearby certified e-waste recycling programs on your state government’s website. A list of certified electronics recyclers also can be found through e-Stewards and R2 Solutions.

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  • https://cleantogreen751389608.wordpress.com/2020/12/14/electronic-waste-disposal/
    https://cleantogreen751389608.wordpress.com/2020/12/14/electronic-waste-disposal/

    Electronic waste disposal : what’s it, and the way can we get obviate it?

    This term applies to consumer and business electronic equipment that is near or at the end of its useful life. There is no clear definition for electronic waste (e-waste) at this point, but if you’ll plug it into a wall socket or it contains circuit boards or chips, it is most likely e-waste. These products can contain heavy metals like cadmium, lead, copper, and chromium, which will contaminate the environment.

    DO NOT eliminate these things within the trash or your recycling bins.

    Examples of electronic waste include, but not limited to:

    TVs, computer monitors, printers, scanners, keyboards, mice, cables, circuit boards, lamps, clocks, flashlight, calculators, phones, answering machines, digital/video cameras, radios, VCRs, DVD players, MP3 and CD players
    Kitchen equipment (toasters, coffee makers, microwave ovens)
    Laboratory equipment** (hot plates, microscopes, calorimeters)
    Broken computer monitors, television tubes (CRTs)

    **Any laboratory equipment that has the possibility of being contaminated with chemical, biological, or radioactive substances must be cleared through EH&S and Departmental Facilities Office before disposal.

    Student E-waste Recycling Options

    If you reside on-campus, you’ll eliminate your electronic waste quickly and conveniently by creating a Fix-It Ticket or contacting your college maintenance office.

    Additional information on disposal/recycling of e-waste and other regulated items are often found college mailrooms, grad student Housing Mailroom altogether and therefore the Village Laundry Community room. Multibins are blue cabinets built to gather batteries, small electronics, printer cartridges, and CDs. They are located in every college mailroom.

    Faculty and Staff E-waste Recycling Options

    Receiving Services is that the UCSC campus-designated outlet for
    the disposal of e-waste.
    Contact Receiving Services (459-2354 or 459-2925) for more information regarding electronic waste handling and removal, or the building facilities person for disposal information in your building or department.

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